Shelter and Settlement and 2) Non-Food Items: Clothing, Bedding and Household Items. Both sections provide general standards for use in any of several response scenarios, such as the return to and repair of damaged dwellings, accommodation with host families, mass shelter in existing buildings and structures, and temporary planned or self-settled camps.
The importance of shelter, settlement and non-food items: In disasters Shelter is a critical determinant for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. Beyond survival, shelter is necessary to provide security and personal safety, protection from the climate and enhanced resistance to ill health and disease. It is also important for human dignity and to sustain family and community life as far as possible in difficult circumstances. Shelter and associated settlement and non-food item responses should support communal coping strategies, incorporating as much self-sufficiency and self-management into the process as possible. Any such responses should also minimize the long-term adverse impact on the environment, whilst maximizing opportunities for the affected communities to maintain or establish livelihood support activities. The most individual level of response to the need for shelter and the maintenance of health, privacy and dignity is the provision of clothing, blankets and bedding. People also require basic goods and supplies to meet their personal hygiene needs, to prepare and eat food, and to provide necessary levels of thermal comfort. Disaster-affected households and those displaced from their dwellings often possess only what they can salvage or carry and the provision of appropriate nonfood items may be required to meet essential needs. The type of response required to meet the needs of people and households affected by a disaster is determined by key factors including the nature and scale of the disaster and the resulting loss of shelter, the climatic conditions and the local environment, the political and security situation, the context (rural or urban) and the ability of the community to cope. Consideration must also be given to the rights and needs of those who are secondarily affected by the disaster, such as any host community. Any response should be informed by the steps taken by the affected households in the initial aftermath of the disaster, using their own skills and material resources to provide temporary shelter or to begin the construction of new, longer-term dwellings. Shelter responses should enable affected households to incrementally upgrade from emergency to durable shelter solutions within a reasonably short time and with regard to the constraints on acquiring the additional resources required. Involving women in shelter and settlement programmes can help ensure that they and all members of the population affected by the disaster have equitable and safe access to shelter, clothing, construction materials, food production equipment and other essential supplies. Women should be consulted about a range of issues such as security and privacy, sources and means of collecting fuel for cooking and heating, and how to ensure that there is equitable access to housing and supplies. Particular attention will be needed to prevent and respond to gender based violence and sexual exploitation. It is therefore important to encourage women’s participation in the design and implementation of shelter and settlement programmes wherever possible.
Non food items: Clothing, blankets and bedding materials meet the most personal human needs for shelter from the climate and the maintenance of health, privacy and dignity. Basic goods and supplies are required to enable families to meet personal hygiene needs, prepare and eat food, provide thermal comfort and build, maintain or repair shelters.
Changes of clothing: individuals should have access to sufficient changes of clothing to ensure their thermal comfort, dignity and safety. This could entail the provision of more than one set of essential items, particularly underclothes, to enable laundering.
Appropriateness: clothing should be appropriate to climatic conditions and cultural practices, separately suitable for men, women, girls and boys, and sized according to age. Bedding materials where possible should reflect cultural practices and be sufficient in quantity to enable separate sleeping arrangements as required amongst the members of individual households.
Thermal performance: consideration should be given to the insulating properties of clothing and bedding and the effect of wet or damp climatic conditions on their thermal performance. An appropriate combination of clothing and bedding items should be provided to ensure a satisfactory level of thermal comfort is attained. Provision of insulated sleeping mats to combat heat loss through the ground may be more effective than providing additional blankets.
Durability: clothing and bedding provided should be sufficiently durable to accommodate typical wear and likely prolonged usage due to the lack of alternative items.
Special needs: additional changes of clothing should be provided where possible to people with incontinence problems, people with HIV/AIDS and associated diarrhea, pregnant and lactating women, older people, disabled people and others with impaired mobility. Infants and children are more prone to heat loss than adults due to their ratio of body surface area to mass, and may require additional blankets, etc. to maintain appropriate levels of thermal comfort. Given their lack of mobility, older people and the ill or infirm, including individuals with HIV/AIDS, may also require particular attention, such as the provision of mattresses or raised beds.
Construction standards: standards of good practice should be agreed with the relevant authorities to ensure that key safety and performance requirements are met. In locations where applicable local or national building codes have not been customarily adhered to or enforced, incremental compliance should be agreed.
Sourcing of shelter materials and labour: livelihood support should be promoted through the local procurement of building materials, specialist building skills and manual labor. Multiple sources, alternative materials and production processes, or the provision of regionally or internationally sourced materials or proprietary shelter systems are required if the local harvesting and supply of materials is likely to have a significant adverse impact on the local economy or the environment. The re-use of materials salvaged from damaged buildings should be promoted where feasible, either as primary construction materials (bricks or stone masonry, roof timber, roof tiles, etc.) or as secondary material (rubble for foundations or leveling roads, etc.). Ownership of or the rights to such material should be identified and agreed.
SHRD has couple of proposals of construction of buildings, where need to be construct school buildings, skilled promotion institutes, and small hospitals. Required strength is on board architect, labors and even suppliers.
There are couple of Church buildings need to constructed as people are offering their prayers without having roof on their heads. That is more difficult task for women to handle their kids and offer their prayers. Proposals can be discussed with the partners.
Disaster prevention and mitigation: the design should be consistent with known climatic conditions, be capable of withstanding appropriate wind-loading, and accommodate snow-loading in cold climates. Earthquake resistance and ground bearing conditions should be assessed. Recommended or actual changes to building standards or common building practices as a result of the disaster should be applied in consultation with local authorities and the disaster-affected population.
Procurement and construction management: a responsive, efficient and accountable supply chain and construction management system for materials; labour and site supervision should be established that includes sourcing, procurement, transportation, handling and administration, from point of origin to the respective site as required.